Tag Archives: Sumeria

The origins of writing (II). Cuneiform writing.

One of the earliest types of writing known is the cuneiform. Although Sumerian pictographs come from the late fourth millennium BC these are considered protowriting, since information conveyed by symbols without a linguistic structure. Cuneiform as such is fixed around 2800 BC.

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The term cuneiform comes from the Latin “cuneus,” meaning wedge as it was written on a clay tablet with a sharpened cane wedge shaped.
The first records were purely pictographic writing. They represented the image of what they wanted to describe by graphic imitation and usually they were economic documents for counting inventory and other ordinary or administrative tasks.

esquina2 (Large)During this time, ideograms and numbers without established rules were represented.

As it was necessary the expression of ideas, signs evolved from a direct representation of objects, combinations of symbols, and later to the syllabic representation.

Other changes, such as alignment and writing from left to right were produced over time. Also the 90 ° rotation, possibly to facilitate writing. The symbols are changing from their pictographic origins to more abstract, and easily represented by indentations made ​​with the wedge.

In the next picture of the University of Cantabria you can see examples of the evolution of some words.

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The tablet that we present is, again, our reproduction of one of the objects in the collection of the British Museum.

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It is an example of the early writing, one of the first records kept, in which more abstract symbols and pictograms are still mixed.

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Its origin is probably southern Iraq, dating between 3100 and 3000 BC

In this case it was left record the daily rationing of beer.

The symbol of beer, a jar upright with a pointed base, appears three times in the tablet. The beer was the most popular drink in Mesopotamia and rationed among workers.

As for the number symbols, we  see an archaic representation, and the interesting numbering system (for different types of objects, different systems) is also observed. I recommend you this article (spanish), if you are interested. This tablet has the distinction of having an oblique notch symbols dedicated to the numbering, which means that they are referring to malt grain.

Our replica is made of resin with wooden base and vertical support, to have it on display, as is engraved on both sides.

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Available in our store

Update:

We’ve modeled a new version, thicker, like the original. Sold without base.

If you are interested in the old version, or adding a base to the new one, please contact us.

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Goddess Nammu and the Anunnaki

Sumer was a historical region in the Middle East that formed the southern part of ancient Mesopotamia, between the floodplains of the rivers Euphrates and Tigris. The Sumerian civilization is considered the first and oldest civilization of the world. Although the origin of its inhabitants, the Sumerians, is uncertain, there are numerous hypotheses about its origins. The most widely accepted today argues that it would have happened no cultural break with the Uruk period, which would rule out external factors such as could be invasions or migrations from other distant lands.

The Sumerians originally practiced a polytheistic religion with anthropomorphic deities representing cosmic and terrestrial forces in their world. During the middle of the third millennium. C., Sumerian deities became more anthropocentric and were “… nature gods transformed into gods of the city.” Gods like Enki and Inanna were seen as if An, god of heaven or Enlil, supreme god of the Sumerian pantheon had assigned them the range, power and knowledge.

As a prelude to other divinities one special find:

Nammu is the Sumerian Goddess of the primordial sea, creator of all things. She gave birth to An (heaven) and Ki (earth), as well as Enki, the master shaper of the world. She instructed Enki on how to create man, and helped him to form them from clay.

NammuThe ancient astronaut theory, also known as paleocontact hypothesis, argues that aliens have visited the planet Earth and that these beings have been responsible, in varying degrees, of the origin and development of human cultures, technologies and religions (another way to call it is  alien creationism).

A common variant of the idea is that most of the deities in the religions, if not all, are actually extraterrestrials, and their technologies were taken as evidence of their divine status.

Sitchin argued that writings of the Sumerians existed that told the story of 50 Anunnaki, inhabitants of a planet called Nibiru, who came to Earth about 400.000 years ago with the intention of undermining raw materials, especially gold, for transport back to Nibiru. Because of their small number, soon got tired of his job and began to create workers for the mines by means of genetic engineering. After many tests, eventually created homo sapiens sapiens: the “Adapa” (model man) or Adam in subsequente mythology. Sitchin contended that the Anunnaki were active in human affairs until their culture was destroyed by global catastrophes caused by the abrupt end of the last ice age about 12,000 years ago. Seeing that humans survived and all they had built was destroyed, the Anunnaki left Earth after having given humans the opportunity and means to govern themselves.

a_51Nammu was the goddess who gave birth to Heaven and Earth, in the times of the Sumerians. The representation of this goddess is the one of a naked woman, straight, snakehead and breast-feeding a child. Their bodies are decorated with cupolas as a symbol of the underworld and magic method to ask the goddess the rebirth of what is in her womb. They also have broad shoulders, arms faced as symbol of protection. Great pubic triangle alluding to earthly paradise where life originates and resurrection.

We present here our representation of the goddess Nammu. Shaped by the painter and sculptor Angel Corral for us (which from here we appreciate his help) taking inspiration on a statuette now disappeared from the Baghdad Museum.

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The reproductions are made of polyurethane resin loaded with crushed marble and mounted on a wooden stand. They are hand painted and aged.

Dimensions (without stand):

22 x 10 x 6 cm

With the base reaches about 30 cm high.

Weight: Approximately 550 grams

The finish is hand shaped and painte, so each one is unique and may have slight differences in color with to the photo.

They are at your disposal in our store.

References::

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religi%C3%B3n_sumeria

http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiguos_astronautas

http://www.historiaantigua.es/sumer/tradicionreligiosa/tradicionreligiosa.html

http://www.lamentiraestaahifuera.com/2010/11/24/la-diosa-nammu/

http://www.expresionbinaria.com/la-historia-secreta-de-los-sumerios/